I study high-level, abstract thinking. I ask questions like:

How are we able to make sense of the invisible, untouchable, or impossible –

ideas like time travel, climate change, or infinity?

Why does our thinking settle into highly stable regimes...
...but also undergo sudden ruptures?
(e.g., mathematical insights, artistic breakthroughs)

How do our bodies, culture, language, and technology
shape our abstract thinking?

Take the ability to do mathematics, from low-level number processing to expert mathematical practice.


In a noisy environment, using fleshy bodies, with imperfect collaborators, we somehow generate precise, stable mathematical inferences – 
that is, seemingly perfect knowledge.


How do we actually do this? How did we learn?
How does it depend on culture and history? 

My research has consequences for what it means to be human, the value of diversity, the impact of technology,
how to improve education.

Big questions require a diversity of tactics.


I use methods ranging from cross-cultural field experiments to computational modeling of massive datasets;
from historical case studies to controlled lab experiments;
from philosophical analysis to machine learning.

Publications are available here.